Possibility of prehistoric ice under the surface of Mars

Cliffs in Ancient Ice on Mars

Scientists have come to realize that, just below the surface, about one third of Mars is covered in ice. We study this ice to learn about Mars’ ancient climate and astronauts’ future water supplies.

Sometimes we see the buried ice because cliffs form like the one in this image. On the brownish, dusty cliff wall, the faint light-blue-colored ice shows through. Some of these cliffs change before our eyes and boulders of ice can tumble downhill. 

There are high possibility of this ice this new discovery has lead us one more step towards colonizing Mars. As we know water is very important for life to survive. It’s not long when people will freely move on the surface of Mars.

Missing days of english calender

The Gregorian calendar is today’s international calendar, named after the man who first introduced it in February 1582, Pope Gregory XIII.

Before 1752, Britain and her Empire followed the Julian calendar, first implemented by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. However this calendar had an inbuilt error of 1 day every 128 years, due to a miscalculation of the solar year by 11 minutes. This affected the date of Easter, traditionally observed on March 21, as it began to move further away from the spring equinox with each passing year.

To get over this problem, the Gregorian calendar was introduced. This is a solar calendar, based on a 365-day year divided into 12 months. Each month consists of either 30 or 31 days with one month, February, consisting of 28 days. A leap year every 4 years adds an extra day to February making it 29 days long.

First to adopt the new calendar in 1582 were France, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. Turkey was the last country to officially switch to the new system on January 1st, 1927.

British Empire in 1774

The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 introduced the Gregorian calendar to the British Empire, bringing Britain into line with most of Western Europe.

Its introduction was not straightforward. It meant that the year 1751 was a short year, lasting just 282 days from 25th March (New Year in the Julian calendar) to 31st December. The year 1752 then began on 1 January.

There remained the problem of aligning the calendar in use in England with that in use in Europe. It was necessary to correct it by 11 days: the ‘lost days’. It was decided that Wednesday 2nd September 1752 would be followed by Thursday 14th September 1752.

How can we reduce exploitation of resources on earth? Solar power generation.

Solar technology is a sustainable, safe, and clean way of harvesting energy—but it’s only collected during daylight hours and is often at the mercy of the weather. One solution? Harvest solar energy from space.

The solar energy available in space could make a significant contribution to the world’s electricity requirements. 

The demand for electricity is likely to outpace production in the next few decades. It is therefore necessary to look for ways to generate more power, preferably in the form of clean, sustainable energy. Of all the viable energy sources, space solar emerges as an attractive clean energy source.

For this purpose we’ll have to build huge solar panels outside Earth’s atmosphere. This will block Sun’s rays for few minutes as compared to Earth’s rotation and cause night like conditions for few minutes during day time.

These solar panels should be made by combined effort of all the countries and should be capable of converting heat energy into electricity and transmitting this produced energy to Earth. Space-based solar power essentially consists of three elements: collecting solar energy in space with reflectors or inflatable mirrors onto solar cells or heaters for thermal systems, wireless power transmission to Earth via microwave or laser and receiving power on Earth via a rectenna, a microwave antenna.

This rectenna should be placed in every country and should be supplied enough power as per every country requirement of power.

This will be our next step towards becoming a type one civilization as per the Kardashev scale for civilizations.

Possibility of lifeform on venus.

Venus is the hottest planet of our solar system. It is hottest not because it is closest to sun but because of dense atmosphere that surrounds the planet.


Venus’ atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide, with clouds of sulfuric acid droplets. The thick atmosphere traps the Sun’s heat, resulting in surface temperatures higher than 880 degrees Fahrenheit (470 degrees Celsius). Venus is tidely locked which means its one surface always face to sun which make it the hottest planet in our solar system. The atmosphere has many layers with different temperatures. At the level where the clouds are, about 30 miles up from the surface, it’s about the same temperature as on the surface of the Earth.

There are many opinions related to this topic among scientists with some scientists thinking that “the culprit is disulfur dioxide, a rare gas composed of two sulfur and two oxygen atoms which does not exist on Earth”. It could be absorbing much of the ultraviolet (UV) light entering Venus’s atmosphere, similar to the way Earth’s ozone layer protects our planet from UV rays.

Whereas some think that they can be absorbed by some kind of life form living in the atmosphere of Venus. As per the recent discoveries, it is clear that phosphine gas (composed of one phosphorus and the hydrogen atoms,PH3 )which is also found on earth and can only be processed by living cells .The atmosphere of Venus is so thick that later Venera space Programs sent by Russia were sent without any landing facility because of the dense atmosphere of the planet.

The conditions of atmosphere in Venus resembles the condition under our water bodies on earth and we know maximum organisms live in oceans on Earth, so it is possible that Venus has life forms totally different from the life forms we see on Earth.

Mandela Effect

The Mandela effect got its name when Fiona Broome, a self-identified “paranormal consultant,” detailed how she remembered former South African President Nelson Mandela dying in the 1980s in prison (although Mandela lived until 2013).

Broome could describe remembering news coverage of his death and even a speech from his widow about his death. Yet none of it happened.

If Broome’s thoughts occurred in isolation, that would be one factor. However, Broome found that other people thought the exact same as her.

Even though the event never happened, she wasn’t the only one who felt like it did. As a result, the Mandela effect concept was “born.”

There are many sites dedicated to people chronicling examples of the Mandela effect, including Reddit.

Often, people are disturbed to find out how they, and a lot of other people, remember an event isn’t exactly the way they remembered it. Here are some examples:

The Berenstein Bears vs. The Berenstain Bears

Many people remember the “Berenstein Bears” as a lovable bear family. But this isn’t actually their name. They’re the “Berenstain Bears.”

Jif vs. Jiffy logo

Jif is a popular brand of peanut butter, but many people remember the brand’s label a little differently — specifically as Jiffy.

Looney Tunes vs. Looney Toons logo

Many people think the logo for the Warner Brothers’ cartoons was spelled “Looney Toons.” Actually, it’s “Looney Tunes.”

‘I am your father.’

Many people who quote this famous line in “Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back” say, “Luke, I am your father.” However, Darth Vader actually says, “I am your father.” There is no “Luke” at all.

There are hundreds to thousands of examples of the Mandela effect across entertainment, logos, and even geography. Reading these examples can make you question your memory.

Conspiracy theorists believe the Mandela effect is an example of alternate universes present in society. However, doctors have a much different explanation of memory, and how some memories, although vivid, can be false.

Evolution of Dogs

Dogs are the humans favourite pet ever since they started living in groups. It was not much earlier that there were no dogs on Earth. It all started about fifteen thousand years ago.

It was the time when humans started living in small groups. These groups hunted other carnivores and shared their food with each other but they were constantly watched by the wild brown wolf who searched for food in the area.

Wolf hesitate to come near humans because of more stress hormones present in their blood as compared to humans But hunger encouraged some wolf to come close to humans and eat the remains left by humans.

On the other hand, humans shared their remains of food with these new friends who provided them protection from other animals. Wolves who left living freely and started living with humans have changed into dogs of different types after many generations, according to the work they are used for, like some dogs work as guard dogs, some as searchers, some as hunters etc. Dogs the on other hand get more food, more chances to reproduce and produce young ones.

Dogs who are more beautiful or more helpful for humans are preferred the most. So after thousands of generations, they have developed in different type of dogs we see today. Who help humans in different work and protect humans from their own species of wolf from which they have evolved.

Our solar system

I have noticed that many of us only know the basics about our solar system. That is good when it’s for passing the exams, but do we really need to know only that or do we need some more information about our solar system?

Mercury –  Mercury is the first planet from the sun and is the smallest planet smaller thann the largest moon of our solar system.

  • Diameter: 4,879 km (3,032 miles)
  • Mass: 3.3011 x 1023 kg (0.055 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 87.97 Earth days
  • Length of Day: 59 Earth days
  • Two probes have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 in 1974-75 and MESSENGER, which flew past Mercury three times before going into orbit around Mercury in 2011 and ended its mission by impacting the surface of Mercury on April 30, 2015. MESSENGER has changed our understanding of this planet, and scientists are still studying the data.

Venus – Venus is the second planet from the sun. It is also the hottest planet. We also call it morning star and evening star .

  • Diameter: 7,521 miles (12,104 km)
  • Mass: 4.867 x 1024 kg (0.815 Earth mass)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 225 days
  • Length of day: 243 Earth days
  • More than 40 spacecrafts have explored Venus. The Magellan mission in the early 1990s mapped 98 percent of the planet’s surface. 

Earth – Earth is the third planet from the sun and fifth largest planet. It’s the only known planet to have life. It is also called the blue planet.

  • Diameter: 12,760 km (7,926 miles)
  • Mass: 5.97 x 1024 kg
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 365 days
  • Length of day: 24 hours (more precisely, 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds.)

Mars – Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is also known as red planet because of the iron oxide present on its surface.

  • Diameter: 6,787 km, (4,217 miles)
  • Mass: 6.4171 x 1023 kg (0.107 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 687 Earth days.
  • Length of day: 24 hours 37 minutes.
  • More than 40 spacecraft have been launched to Mars. 

Asteroid belt- The is a torus-shaped region in the Solar System, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupiter and Mars, that is occupied by a great many solid, irregularly shaped bodies, of many sizes but much smaller than planets, called asteroids.

Ceres – the largest body in the main asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. With a diameter of 940 km (580 mi), Ceres is both the largest of the asteroids and the only likely dwarf planet  inside Neptunes orbit. It is the 25th largest body in the solar system within the orbit of Neptune

Jupiter- Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest planet in our solar system. It is a gas giant, meaning that it is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with swirling clouds and other trace gases.

  • Diameter: 428,400 km (88,730 miles)
  • Mass: 1.8986 × 1027 kg (317.8 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 11.9 Earth years
  • Length of day: 9.8 Earth hours
  • Many missions have visited Jupiter and its system of moons, with the latest being the Juno mission arrived at Jupiter in 2016.

Saturn – Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun. It is a gas giant with layers of gaseous material surrounding a solid core. It can be easily recognised due to it’s ring.

  • Diameter: 120,500 km (74,900 miles)
  • Mass: 5.6836 x 1026 kg (95.159 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 29.5 Earth years
  • Length of day: 10.7 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -178 C (-288 F)
  • Five missions have gone to Saturn. Since 2004, Cassini has been exploring Saturn, its moons and rings. 

Uranus – uranus is the seventh planet from the sun.Though it is classified as a “gas giant”, it is often referred to as an “ice giant” as well, owing to the presence of ammonia, methane, water and hydrocarbons in ice form. The presence of methane ice is also what gives it its bluish appearance.

  • Diameter: 51,120 km (31,763 miles)
  • Mass:
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 84 Earth years
  • Length of day: 18 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -216 C (-357 F)
  • Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Uranus.

Neptune – Neptune is the eight planet from the sun.Due to its extreme distance from our Sun, Neptune cannot be seen with the naked eye, and only one mission has ever flown close enough to get detailed images of it. 

  • Diameter: 49,530 km (30,775 miles)
  • Mass: 1.0243 x 1026 kg (17 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 165 Earth years
  • Length of day: 16 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -214 C (-353 F)
  • Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Neptune. 

Pluto – pluto is the second dwarf planet .once considered the ninth and most distant planet from the sun, is now the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. It is also one of the largest known members of the kuiper belt a shadowy zone beyond the orbit of Neptune thought to be populated by hundreds of thousands of rocky, icy bodies.

Senda –  sedna is a large planetoid in the outer reach of the solar system that was, as of 2020, at a distance of about 85 astronomical units.

Haumae- Haumea is a likely dwarf planet located beyond Neptune’s orbit. It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States 

Makemake – makemake is a dwarf planet in the outer solar system. It was the fourth body identified as a dwarf planet, and was one of the bodies that caused Pluto to lose its status as a planet.

Makemake is large enough and bright enough to be studied by a high-end amateur telescope. 

Eris – Eris is the most massive and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the goddess of strife and discord.

Oort cloud – A giant shell of icy bodies known as the Oort Cloud is thought to encircle the solar system. There may be billions, even trillions of bodies in it, and some are so large they count as dwarf planets. When the inhabitants interact with passing stars, molecular clouds, and gravity from the galaxy, they may find themselves spiraling inward toward the sun, or cast completely out of the solar system into distant regions of space. 

How did humans reach here??

When darwin said humans are animals with higher thinking abilities many people did not believe him and till this date many people still not believe in him. But the truth is we all are animals with higher thinking abilities who were firstly noticed in the continent of Africa.

It all started when our new species of plant came into existance (grass) with growth of grass trees which were closer earlier are now at a distance from each other and empty spaces between the trees are filled with grass. Our ancestors who were apes and lived in trees which provide them food and Safety from the predators roming the earth surface but with lessening of trees they now have to come on land and roam in search of food.

Apes who uses there four legs to move now use only two legs and stand tall to see the predators above the grass this was the first success in the way. now when there is two free hand they used them to make and hold tools .

Soon they discovered fire now they can cook there food on fire which get more delicious after cooking. Fire also protect them from predators when they started living in the caves.

Cooking food make their brain larger and there interstine and teeth shorter with this increased brain size human developed world’s first sign language which help them to work in groups .

With there ability to communicate they escaped the continent of africa and reached to other parts of the world where many other species of humans are developing just like our ancestors but there are no other species of humans living on earth now so it is assumed that homosapiens started the first crusade of humankind by killing every other species of humans. Why did they do so?

Its one simple answer behind that they were too familiar to ignore and too different to tolerate. Its the matter of existance that made them do this crusade .

The grass that forced them to come down from trees now helped them. many variety of weeds ( that grow naturally in the area) are grown around different part of the world at the same time

Humans who are now developed as hunters and gatherers by roming many generations on the surface of earth now settle at one place. They lived in groups while hunting but now they lived in even bigger groups these groups will be in future known as civilisations.

The communicating abilities which were just sign language when we left africa is now replaced with well organised language to shear our thoughts and emotions easily .

With ability to communicate humans pass informations to next generation and after many generations humans grow a mind that can store information , generate new ideas and work to fullfill these ideas. These unique ability of humans separate them from other animals.

Humans are now leading the food chart. We have given theories and equations related to different natural phenomena we are planning to settle on other planets of solar system.

Humans who live as apes in the forest of africa is now leading the planet all this is just because of human’s ability to communicate and think .

Is anything still in observable universe ?

We can Measure speed of any object only if observed from a fixed point but Is there anything still in our universe? If not then how are we finding speed of planets solar systems stars and even galaxies?

First of all there is nothing still in our universe. Our planet Earth is moving on its own axis at the speed of 460 meter/second and revolving around the sun at the speed of 30 km/sec. Our solar system is moving at the speed of seventy thousand kms towards the bright star Vega in the constellation of Lyra.

Our solar system is also moving in our galaxy Milky Way towards the galactic center in a spiral form at the speed of 792 km/h.

Our whole galaxy Milky Way is moving at the speed of 2.1 million km/h towards the constellation of Leo and Virgo, towards a thing we don’t really understand yet, called ‘The Great Attractor’.

So how can we measure speed of these celestial bodies? It can be measured by taking the light of the star as center that is so far away that its change in position respective to ours is negligible when observed for short period of time.

How human can civilise on mars in future?

Earth is the home for every human being that has ever existed. It gives us all the essential things required for generation and growth of life, as we have discussed in our earlier blog, that Earth has the exact conditions and atmosphere required for generation of life.

But now we are evolved enough that we can create right condition for civilising on other planets. This can not be done in just one day – it’s a slow process and will take many years to create the right conditions for survival and existence of life.

On planets like Mars, this process is not so difficult, but certain things should be kept in mind, like its gravity, atmospheric conditions , presence of oxygen and carbon di oxide, right temprature etc.

These problems now a days can be solved using modern knowledge and instrument.

First problem that comes is gravity – we can overcome it by sucking space dust and small metallic asteroids on its surface as asteroids are not far away from Mars.

Unwanted big asteroids can be destroyed before reaching the surface and their dust and remains can be brought to the surface of planet. increased gravity will help us to maintain more dense atmosphere

Second problem that comes is the presence of carbon. Carbon is very essential for maintaining right temprature on the planet. The lack of carbon can be fullfilled by transporting it from another neighbor – Venus – in liquified form through big cargo space ships.

Firstly, artifical plantation should be done which contains green plants that perform photosynthesis and release oxygen in atmosphere to set a base for humans to live on this planet.

For this purpose, water can be arranged by asteroids made up of ice. Groundwater can also be increased by using these asteroids underground.

Single celled organisms like tardigrade that can survive without water or atmosphere for long period of time can be left in the surface so that they can adapt to the planet’s environment. As we have disscussed in my previous post https://businessforum.science.blog/2020/07/19/from-evolution-of-particles-to-evolution-of-species/ that life is very obstinate to survive and find various ways to exist. Maybe it can evolve in species that don’t exist on our planet or species that need oxygen or any type of gases. No one knows, just small changes in condition can lead to very different type of species as we can see on Earth.

The dead plant and their parts will provide manure and fertilizers for upcoming plantation of forests on the red planet.