Evolution of Dogs

Dogs are the humans favourite pet ever since they started living in groups. It was not much earlier that there were no dogs on Earth. It all started about fifteen thousand years ago.

It was the time when humans started living in small groups. These groups hunted other carnivores and shared their food with each other but they were constantly watched by the wild brown wolf who searched for food in the area.

Wolf hesitate to come near humans because of more stress hormones present in their blood as compared to humans But hunger encouraged some wolf to come close to humans and eat the remains left by humans.

On the other hand, humans shared their remains of food with these new friends who provided them protection from other animals. Wolves who left living freely and started living with humans have changed into dogs of different types after many generations, according to the work they are used for, like some dogs work as guard dogs, some as searchers, some as hunters etc. Dogs the on other hand get more food, more chances to reproduce and produce young ones.

Dogs who are more beautiful or more helpful for humans are preferred the most. So after thousands of generations, they have developed in different type of dogs we see today. Who help humans in different work and protect humans from their own species of wolf from which they have evolved.

Our solar system

I have noticed that many of us only know the basics about our solar system. That is good when it’s for passing the exams, but do we really need to know only that or do we need some more information about our solar system?

Mercury –  Mercury is the first planet from the sun and is the smallest planet smaller thann the largest moon of our solar system.

  • Diameter: 4,879 km (3,032 miles)
  • Mass: 3.3011 x 1023 kg (0.055 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 87.97 Earth days
  • Length of Day: 59 Earth days
  • Two probes have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 in 1974-75 and MESSENGER, which flew past Mercury three times before going into orbit around Mercury in 2011 and ended its mission by impacting the surface of Mercury on April 30, 2015. MESSENGER has changed our understanding of this planet, and scientists are still studying the data.

Venus – Venus is the second planet from the sun. It is also the hottest planet. We also call it morning star and evening star .

  • Diameter: 7,521 miles (12,104 km)
  • Mass: 4.867 x 1024 kg (0.815 Earth mass)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 225 days
  • Length of day: 243 Earth days
  • More than 40 spacecrafts have explored Venus. The Magellan mission in the early 1990s mapped 98 percent of the planet’s surface. 

Earth – Earth is the third planet from the sun and fifth largest planet. It’s the only known planet to have life. It is also called the blue planet.

  • Diameter: 12,760 km (7,926 miles)
  • Mass: 5.97 x 1024 kg
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 365 days
  • Length of day: 24 hours (more precisely, 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds.)

Mars – Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is also known as red planet because of the iron oxide present on its surface.

  • Diameter: 6,787 km, (4,217 miles)
  • Mass: 6.4171 x 1023 kg (0.107 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 687 Earth days.
  • Length of day: 24 hours 37 minutes.
  • More than 40 spacecraft have been launched to Mars. 

Asteroid belt- The is a torus-shaped region in the Solar System, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupiter and Mars, that is occupied by a great many solid, irregularly shaped bodies, of many sizes but much smaller than planets, called asteroids.

Ceres – the largest body in the main asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. With a diameter of 940 km (580 mi), Ceres is both the largest of the asteroids and the only likely dwarf planet  inside Neptunes orbit. It is the 25th largest body in the solar system within the orbit of Neptune

Jupiter- Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest planet in our solar system. It is a gas giant, meaning that it is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with swirling clouds and other trace gases.

  • Diameter: 428,400 km (88,730 miles)
  • Mass: 1.8986 × 1027 kg (317.8 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 11.9 Earth years
  • Length of day: 9.8 Earth hours
  • Many missions have visited Jupiter and its system of moons, with the latest being the Juno mission arrived at Jupiter in 2016.

Saturn – Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun. It is a gas giant with layers of gaseous material surrounding a solid core. It can be easily recognised due to it’s ring.

  • Diameter: 120,500 km (74,900 miles)
  • Mass: 5.6836 x 1026 kg (95.159 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 29.5 Earth years
  • Length of day: 10.7 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -178 C (-288 F)
  • Five missions have gone to Saturn. Since 2004, Cassini has been exploring Saturn, its moons and rings. 

Uranus – uranus is the seventh planet from the sun.Though it is classified as a “gas giant”, it is often referred to as an “ice giant” as well, owing to the presence of ammonia, methane, water and hydrocarbons in ice form. The presence of methane ice is also what gives it its bluish appearance.

  • Diameter: 51,120 km (31,763 miles)
  • Mass:
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 84 Earth years
  • Length of day: 18 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -216 C (-357 F)
  • Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Uranus.

Neptune – Neptune is the eight planet from the sun.Due to its extreme distance from our Sun, Neptune cannot be seen with the naked eye, and only one mission has ever flown close enough to get detailed images of it. 

  • Diameter: 49,530 km (30,775 miles)
  • Mass: 1.0243 x 1026 kg (17 Earths)
  • Length of Year (Orbit): 165 Earth years
  • Length of day: 16 Earth hours
  • Temperature: -214 C (-353 F)
  • Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Neptune. 

Pluto – pluto is the second dwarf planet .once considered the ninth and most distant planet from the sun, is now the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. It is also one of the largest known members of the kuiper belt a shadowy zone beyond the orbit of Neptune thought to be populated by hundreds of thousands of rocky, icy bodies.

Senda –  sedna is a large planetoid in the outer reach of the solar system that was, as of 2020, at a distance of about 85 astronomical units.

Haumae- Haumea is a likely dwarf planet located beyond Neptune’s orbit. It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States 

Makemake – makemake is a dwarf planet in the outer solar system. It was the fourth body identified as a dwarf planet, and was one of the bodies that caused Pluto to lose its status as a planet.

Makemake is large enough and bright enough to be studied by a high-end amateur telescope. 

Eris – Eris is the most massive and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the goddess of strife and discord.

Oort cloud – A giant shell of icy bodies known as the Oort Cloud is thought to encircle the solar system. There may be billions, even trillions of bodies in it, and some are so large they count as dwarf planets. When the inhabitants interact with passing stars, molecular clouds, and gravity from the galaxy, they may find themselves spiraling inward toward the sun, or cast completely out of the solar system into distant regions of space. 

How did humans reach here??

When darwin said humans are animals with higher thinking abilities many people did not believe him and till this date many people still not believe in him. But the truth is we all are animals with higher thinking abilities who were firstly noticed in the continent of Africa.

It all started when our new species of plant came into existance (grass) with growth of grass trees which were closer earlier are now at a distance from each other and empty spaces between the trees are filled with grass. Our ancestors who were apes and lived in trees which provide them food and Safety from the predators roming the earth surface but with lessening of trees they now have to come on land and roam in search of food.

Apes who uses there four legs to move now use only two legs and stand tall to see the predators above the grass this was the first success in the way. now when there is two free hand they used them to make and hold tools .

Soon they discovered fire now they can cook there food on fire which get more delicious after cooking. Fire also protect them from predators when they started living in the caves.

Cooking food make their brain larger and there interstine and teeth shorter with this increased brain size human developed world’s first sign language which help them to work in groups .

With there ability to communicate they escaped the continent of africa and reached to other parts of the world where many other species of humans are developing just like our ancestors but there are no other species of humans living on earth now so it is assumed that homosapiens started the first crusade of humankind by killing every other species of humans. Why did they do so?

Its one simple answer behind that they were too familiar to ignore and too different to tolerate. Its the matter of existance that made them do this crusade .

The grass that forced them to come down from trees now helped them. many variety of weeds ( that grow naturally in the area) are grown around different part of the world at the same time

Humans who are now developed as hunters and gatherers by roming many generations on the surface of earth now settle at one place. They lived in groups while hunting but now they lived in even bigger groups these groups will be in future known as civilisations.

The communicating abilities which were just sign language when we left africa is now replaced with well organised language to shear our thoughts and emotions easily .

With ability to communicate humans pass informations to next generation and after many generations humans grow a mind that can store information , generate new ideas and work to fullfill these ideas. These unique ability of humans separate them from other animals.

Humans are now leading the food chart. We have given theories and equations related to different natural phenomena we are planning to settle on other planets of solar system.

Humans who live as apes in the forest of africa is now leading the planet all this is just because of human’s ability to communicate and think .

Is anything still in observable universe ?

We can Measure speed of any object only if observed from a fixed point but Is there anything still in our universe? If not then how are we finding speed of planets solar systems stars and even galaxies?

First of all there is nothing still in our universe. Our planet Earth is moving on its own axis at the speed of 460 meter/second and revolving around the sun at the speed of 30 km/sec. Our solar system is moving at the speed of seventy thousand kms towards the bright star Vega in the constellation of Lyra.

Our solar system is also moving in our galaxy Milky Way towards the galactic center in a spiral form at the speed of 792 km/h.

Our whole galaxy Milky Way is moving at the speed of 2.1 million km/h towards the constellation of Leo and Virgo, towards a thing we don’t really understand yet, called ‘The Great Attractor’.

So how can we measure speed of these celestial bodies? It can be measured by taking the light of the star as center that is so far away that its change in position respective to ours is negligible when observed for short period of time.

How human can civilise on mars in future?

Earth is the home for every human being that has ever existed. It gives us all the essential things required for generation and growth of life, as we have discussed in our earlier blog, that Earth has the exact conditions and atmosphere required for generation of life.

But now we are evolved enough that we can create right condition for civilising on other planets. This can not be done in just one day – it’s a slow process and will take many years to create the right conditions for survival and existence of life.

On planets like Mars, this process is not so difficult, but certain things should be kept in mind, like its gravity, atmospheric conditions , presence of oxygen and carbon di oxide, right temprature etc.

These problems now a days can be solved using modern knowledge and instrument.

First problem that comes is gravity – we can overcome it by sucking space dust and small metallic asteroids on its surface as asteroids are not far away from Mars.

Unwanted big asteroids can be destroyed before reaching the surface and their dust and remains can be brought to the surface of planet. increased gravity will help us to maintain more dense atmosphere

Second problem that comes is the presence of carbon. Carbon is very essential for maintaining right temprature on the planet. The lack of carbon can be fullfilled by transporting it from another neighbor – Venus – in liquified form through big cargo space ships.

Firstly, artifical plantation should be done which contains green plants that perform photosynthesis and release oxygen in atmosphere to set a base for humans to live on this planet.

For this purpose, water can be arranged by asteroids made up of ice. Groundwater can also be increased by using these asteroids underground.

Single celled organisms like tardigrade that can survive without water or atmosphere for long period of time can be left in the surface so that they can adapt to the planet’s environment. As we have disscussed in my previous post https://businessforum.science.blog/2020/07/19/from-evolution-of-particles-to-evolution-of-species/ that life is very obstinate to survive and find various ways to exist. Maybe it can evolve in species that don’t exist on our planet or species that need oxygen or any type of gases. No one knows, just small changes in condition can lead to very different type of species as we can see on Earth.

The dead plant and their parts will provide manure and fertilizers for upcoming plantation of forests on the red planet.

How can we travel to other galaxies and in time ?

Time travel and travelling to long distances in the galaxy is the dream of many scientists and philosophers since we were evolved enough to prove some natural phenomena with the help of science and understand some of the concepts of space and time .

But till today we are unable to fullfill this dream. But is it possible??

Scientists are working day night to find a way to do so and many scientists believe that the only way to travel long distances in spaces and through time can be done by small cosmic tunnel that is called a worm hole. A worm hole is a tunnel shaped hole just like a black hole but it appear for a very short period of time and in atomic scale. They can not be seen through naked eyes or microscope but there effects can be noticed. They are everywhere around us and in us. a worm hole transport electron to another place for very short period of time. The reduced mass can be noticed . This mass again appears in other orbit.

Also in quantum Entangelment two particle seperated by a large distance in cosmos can be connected directly through each other if one particle is rotated other will start rotating this can be possible only through a worm hole

Scientists believe that these worm holes can help us to travel very large distance is universe in just fractions of time and can even lead us to past or in future.

From Evolution of Particles to evolution of species.

Just after big bang there was nothing but  energy spreading in every possible direction. This energy after cooling to certain limit forms first mass of the universe that is the smallest atomic structure ie the electrons these electrons attain the heat released during big bang and started moving at very high speed forming glowing disk around a black hole at there center . this electon disk forms is the base for every matter this electron forms the first of element ie hydrogen. By the property of every atom to evolve into more complex and evolved atom like hydrogen under right temperature and pressure forms helium and soo on After all the element essential for formation of stars planets and galaxies this evolution taken a diffent way of evolving some element combine together in definate quantity under right condition to form life on this planet , a micro-organism. then the story of evolution of particle has changed into evolution of life . Today we can see soo many variet of plants organisms and other objects because of there right proportion of elements. We study the evolution of life and particles separately but do not explain relation between them easily .